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我不可能做到别人要求我做每一件事,我只有足够时间去做我该去做的事情。如果我无法把每件事情都作到尽善尽美,这便意味着我想做的事情已经超过了我该去做。认清了自己的人生坐标,我的生活变得更为简单了,作息安排也更为合理。 魅力由它而生,它是苦难的根源,也是塑造坚强现在的原因。愿意相信别人,能够承担别人的信任,相信别人却是极其艰难的决定。心底的秘密存在于过去,找到那个能接受过去的人,就能有勇气焚毁所有的担心,融化冰封的城堡,让世界大地回春。

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咸海濒临消失  

2012-06-11 15:04:25|  分类: message |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Aral Sea is an endorheic saline lake in Central Asia located between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Since the 1960s its level and its amount of water are promptly decreasing due to drawing of water from main feeding rivers – the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. Before the shallowing the Aral Sea was the fourth biggest lake in the world.

咸海是一个位于中亚的内流咸水湖,坐落于卡扎科斯坦和乌兹别克斯坦之间。从1960年代开始阿姆河和锡尔河注水量减少导致咸海的水位下降、湖面积减少。在此之前咸海曾是世界第四大湖。  
By today the drying Aral Sea has moved 100 km away from its former coastline near Muinak, Uzbekistan.

到今天逐渐干涸的咸海已经退到离之前海岸线100公里远,位于乌兹别克斯坦的穆伊纳克附近。


Along centuries it repeatedly happened that the riverbed of the Amu Darya moved aside from the Aral Sea (to the Caspian Sea) what made the Aral Sea size smaller. However it always gained its big size back. Today the considerable part of water from both rivers is spent for irrigation of rice and cotton fields what results in drastic reduction of water coming back to their deltas and consequently to the Aral Sea itself.

几千年来,阿姆河的河道数次偏离咸海,导致咸海缩小,不过只要阿姆河再次移回,咸海总会恢复。但为了种植棉花和稻米等农作物,人们从两条河流大量抽水,使得流入三角洲以及咸海的水严重减少。
Worsening of the sea condition was kept secret in the USSR for dozens of years till 1985 when M. Gorbachev eventually made the ecological catastrophe public known. In the end of the 1980s the water level dropped so much that the sea divided into two parts: Northern Small Aral and Southern Big Aral.

前苏联政府把咸海的惨状隐瞒了数十年,直到1985年,总理戈尔巴乔夫才揭露这项严重的环境惨剧。1980年代咸海水位下降,分裂成两部分:北部的小咸海和南部的大咸海。


By 2007 in the southern part there formed a deep western and a shallow eastern basins, also remains of a little separate firth. Big Aral decreased from 708 to 75 km3 only and the water salinity raised from 14 to 100 g/l. With the collapse of the USSR in 1991 the Aral Sea turned to be divided between the newly formed states: Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

到了2007年,南边的大咸海又分裂成较深的西湖与较浅的东湖,以及一个小而独立的湖湾。大咸海的水量从708立方公里降到75立方公里,盐度则从每公升14公克上升到超过100公克。1991年,前苏联解体,咸海分别为新成立的哈萨克与乌兹别克所拥有。


The drying of the Aral Sea had terrible aftermath. Due to the drastic drop of the rivers flow stopped the spring floods providing the Amur Darya and the Syr Darya with fresh water and fertile sediments. Number of fish inhabiting the sea dropped from 32 to 6 due to high salinity of the water, loss of spawning ground and feeding areas.

咸海干涸导致了严重的后果。河水流量严重减少,春洪不再,无法把淡水和营养的沉积物带到阿姆河和锡尔河。盐度的增加、繁殖和觅食区的减少导致水域鱼种数量由以前的32种降到现在的6种。


In 1960 fish capture reached 40 thousand tons but by the mid of the 1980s capture fishing just ceased to exist and consequently 60 thousand of working positions were lost.

1960年代还可以捕获4万吨鱼量的捕鱼活动,到1980年代中期就停滞了,同时消失的还有6万个工作机会。


Navigation also stopped because the water moved many kilometres away from the main local ports.

咸海的航运业因为海水退到离当地主要港口几千里以外的地方而被迫停止。




There are hundreds of ship skeletons on the coastline.

船体残骸在干涸的海岸线上随处可见。


The Aral Sea is impossible to restore. The only way out that would let make the situation better is to stop irrigation of the fields that demands 92% of the withdrawal. However 4 of 5 republics near the basin of the Aral Sea intend to only increase irrigation of the farmlands to feed the growing population.

要让咸海回到从前基本不太可能。唯一的方法是减少灌溉,因为灌溉就占流失水量的92%,然而咸海盆地的五个前苏联共和国,除了哈萨克以外,都为了使成长中的人口温饱而主张增加灌溉。


Other large basins of the world trace the sad destiny of the Aral Sea: for example Chad lake in Central Africa or Salton Sea in the south of an American state California.

咸海的悲剧在世界其它大型湖泊同样上演:比如中非的乍得湖和美国加尼弗尼亚南部的索尔顿湖。












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