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令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史  

2012-04-02 22:36:53|  分类: message |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客

111年以来,诺贝尔和平奖已经颁发了92次。(以前有时候,委员会几年评选一次。)有101位个人和20个组织获得过诺贝尔和平奖。获奖者的故事都是很吸引人的,我们来看看其中一些获奖者的故事吧。

 阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔在1895年写下了一份与众不同的遗嘱,将他的财产作为设立5个奖项的基金,它们就是大名鼎鼎的诺贝尔物理学奖、诺贝尔化学奖、诺贝尔生理学或医学奖、诺贝尔文学奖和诺贝尔和平奖。原本没有设立诺贝尔经济奖,在1968年由瑞典中央银行追加了诺贝尔经济学奖。
Nobel's will made news around the world, because, in those days, few people left a fortune to some public or philanthropic enterprise. But Nobel, unlucky in love, had no family, and he wanted to do something special with his money.

诺贝尔的遗嘱很快名噪全世界,因为,在那个时代,很少有人将这么一大笔财富用于公共事业和慈善事业。但是,诺贝尔在经历了爱情的挫折之后,他既没有家庭也没有子女,他就想用自己的钱做一些特殊而有意义的事情。
He was a brilliant scientist and entrepreneur, with 355 patents to his name. His most famous invention is dynamite. And many people suppose that he established his prize for peace in order to atone for this invention.

他是一名杰出的科学家和成功的企业家,名下有355项专利权。他最为人所知的发明是炸药。许多人以为他设立和平奖的初衷是为了补偿他所发明的炸药给这个世界带来的破坏。
Not so. From what we know, he was proud of his achievements in explosives, which allowed the building of what we today call "infrastructure": the St. Gotthard Tunnel through the Swiss Alps, for example, and the Central Pacific Railroad. "There is nothing in the world which cannot be misunderstood or abused," he said. What's more, he was a great believer in the deterrent power of terrible weapons. (Sometimes, his belief in deterrence was na?ve.)

其实不然。我们所了解到的信息是,他对自己发明的炸药给人类带来的巨大成就而沾沾自喜,的确,正因为有了炸药,人类社会才开始了我们今天所谓的“基础设施”的建设:圣·高特哈德隧道在瑞典开通,全长10.14公里(合16.224公里),以及美国境内横跨各州的太平洋主干线铁路( Central Pacific Railroad)。“这个世界上没有被误解和被滥用的东西,”他说。更有甚者,对于具有恐怖威慑力的武器,他是一位超级信仰者。(有时候,他对杀伤力武器的信仰显得很幼稚。)1
In his will, Nobel asked that his peace prize go to "the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."

在遗嘱中,诺贝尔要求“诺贝尔和平奖”要授予那些对“国与国的关系改善做出杰出贡献的人,对于消除对立的敌意,或者促进了世界和平的组织。”
He also said that his prizes - all five of them - should go for work done "during the preceding year." Even the literature prize? Oh, yes. The Nobel prizes were not meant to be lifetime-achievement awards. But committees have always ignored the will, when they felt like it.

他还说各个奖项,要以上个年度的人和事作为评选的对象。甚至是文学奖?哦,当然。诺贝尔奖最初不是终身成就奖。可是委员会的委员们一直以来忽视了这点。
Nobel asked the Norwegian legislature to appoint the peace committee. And they always have, since 1901, when the Nobel prizes began. The peace committee is composed of five persons, and they are all Norwegian. It has been this way from the beginning. The will does not require that the committee members be Norwegian - it's merely custom.

诺贝尔点名要挪威立法机构负责和平奖委员会的组建工作。自1901年诺贝尔奖开始执行以来,他们就如此做。和平奖委员会由5人组成,他们全都是挪威人。 直到今日,委员会的构成同一开始一样,由挪威人组成。遗嘱中并没有特别要求该委员会的成员必须是挪威人——只是一直以来,惯例如此。
So, the Norwegian people elect the legislature, and the legislature elects the peace committee. You might say, therefore, that the Nobel Peace Prize is a reflection of the Norwegians and their political culture. That culture is, of course, social democratic.

看,挪威人确立立法委,立法委再决定和平奖评选委员会的组建。你可能会问,那么诺贝尔和平奖的颁发在一定程度体现了挪威人的政治文化取向。不过挪威人的文化中,最强调重视社会民主这一点。
In these last 111 years, the peace prize has been given 92 times. (The committee used to skip years, occasionally.) A hundred and one individuals have won the prize, and 20 organizations. They've all been interesting--every one. But shall we have a look at a handful?

111年以来,诺贝尔和平奖已经颁发了92次。(以前有时候,委员会几年评选一次。)有101位个人和20个组织获得过诺贝尔和平奖。获奖者的故事都是很吸引人的,我们来看看其中一些获奖者的故事吧。
1.Henry Dunant (1901)

1. 第一届和平奖得主:亨利- 杜南(1901)
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令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客

 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
In the inaugural year, the prize was divided between two men: Frédéric Passy and Henry Dunant. Passy was a Frenchman, and a renowned pacifist. Dunant (1828-1910) was a Swiss, and the father of the Red Cross. In middle age, something tragic happened to him: He went bankrupt, and became a vagabond. He was reduced to begging. Eventually, he found refuge in a hospice, where he was discovered by a journalist in 1895. A campaign was mounted to get Dunant the first Nobel Prize. He died nine years later, at 82. He did not want an elaborate funeral. He said he wanted to be carried to his grave "like a dog," which he was.

在那年,诺贝尔和平奖颁给了两个人:弗雷德里克-帕西和亨利- 杜南。帕西是法国人,是一个很有名的和平主义者。杜南(1828-1910)是瑞士人——红十字会创办人,人们尊称他为“红十字会之父”。中年的时候,发生了对他一生而言都是悲惨的变故:他破产了,由富翁变成了流浪汉。他不得不乞讨度日。最后,他在救济院安顿了下来。1895年,一名记者报道了杜南的故事。于是,一场让杜南获得第一届诺贝尔和平奖的声势巨大的活动,让他民心所归地获得了该奖项。在获奖九年后,他辞世长眠了,时年82岁。他不想让葬礼奢华浪费。他说他想让自己“像只狗”那样,自然地死去。
2.Bertha von Suttner (1905)

 2.  贝尔塔·冯·苏特纳(1905)
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令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客

 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
This lady was a minor Austrian aristocrat, and a friend of Alfred Nobel. He was probably in love with her, at first. But she married someone else, and everyone went on with life. Suttner (1843-1914) was a big-time peace campaigner. She influenced Nobel to leave, among his prizes, a prize for peace. In 1889, she wrote an anti-war novel called Die Waffen nieder! or Lay Down Your Arms! It was a huge hit, and gave the peace movement a boost. Tolstoy compared the book, in its impact, to Uncle Tom's Cabin. Suttner died on June 21, 1914, exactly a week before Princip took his gun and destroyed the world.

苏特纳女士是奥地利贵族出身,并且也是阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔的好朋友。可能诺贝尔曾经爱过她。但是她最后和别人结婚了,每个人都有自己的生活。苏特纳(1843-1914)一名伟大的和平主义者。她甚至影响了诺贝尔设立和平奖。1889年,她写了一本反战小说《放下武器》!这本小说影响很大,促进了和平运动的发展。托尔斯泰将这本小说和《汤姆叔叔的小屋》相提并论。苏特纳死于1914年6月21日,就在一周后, 1914年6月28日,塞尔维亚(Serbia)族学生普林西普(Princip)在波斯尼亚(Bosnia)首府萨拉热窝(Sarajevo)开枪打死奥匈帝国(Austro-Hungarian)王位继承人斐迪南(Ferdinand)大公。
3.Fridtjof Nansen (1922)

 3.弗里乔夫·南森(1922)
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 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
This laureate (1861-1930) was a real-life Indiana Jones, except probably more impressive. Nansen was an athlete, an explorer, a scientist, a writer, a professor, a diplomat, an executive, a humanitarian. At 18, he set a world speed-skating record. He explored and charted the Arctic regions, braving many dangers. He curated at the Bergen Museum. He was his country's ambassador to Britain. After World War I, the League of Nations asked him to do several tasks. He was the first high commissioner for refugees. When he won the Nobel Peace Prize, he became the second Norwegian to do so. There has not been one since.

这位获奖者(1861-1930)是一位现实版的印第安那琼斯,除了让人更易记住这位“样样通”的先生外。南森集运动员、探险家、科学家、作家、教授、外交家、实干家和人道主义者等众多光环于一身。在18岁那年,他就创造了一项世界速滑记录。他去北极探险并会出了地图,征服了很多艰难危险。他在卑尔根博物馆任职。他还是挪威驻英国大使。第一次世界大战后,国际联盟委派了多项任务给他。他是第一任联合国难民事务高级专员。当他获得诺贝尔和平奖,他是第二个获得吧、诺贝尔奖的挪威人。自那以后,就再没有挪威人获得过这个奖项。
4.Charles G. Dawes (1925)

 4. 查尔斯·盖茨·道斯(1925)
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令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客

 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
The 1925 award was split between the British foreign secretary, Sir Austen Chamberlain (half-brother to Neville), and the American vice president, Dawes (1865-1951). Dawes was honored for work he did before becoming vice president: for leading the committee that gave Germany a new schedule and new terms for reparations. Dawes was basically a businessman, a financier, and a statesman. But he was also a musician - and in 1912 composed a piece called Melody in A. Fritz Kreisler, the great violinist, made a recording of it. After Dawes died, the piece assumed a new life. Carl Sigmund put words to it, turning it into a pop song called "It's All in the Game." It has been sung by everyone from Louis Armstrong to Elton John.

1925年代诺贝尔和平奖分给了英国外交大臣奥斯汀-张伯伦爵士,和当时的美国副总统道斯(1865-1951)。道斯在成为副总统之前,所做的大量工作被人们所称道:领导委员会制定了关于德国赔偿问题的一系列决定。道斯本人是一名商人、金融家以及政治家。但他也是一名音乐家——由他创作于1912年的一首叫“ Melody in A”的曲子,小提琴之王克莱斯勒将这首曲子收在一张专辑里面。道斯死后,这段乐曲也赋予了新的生命。卡尔-西格蒙德为这首曲子填了词,成为了一首流行歌曲,名叫“ It's All in the Game. ”该歌曲一直被每位歌手传唱,包括乡村乐巨星 Louis Armstrong和 Elton John。
5.Carl von Ossietzky (1935)

 5. 卡尔.冯.奥西埃茨基(1935)
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 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
Ossietzky (1889-1938) was surely one of the bravest people ever to win the prize. He was a German journalist and pacifist. Even before the Nazis came to power, he was arrested and imprisoned. When the Nazis came to power, he was arrested and imprisoned again, almost immediately - the day after the Reichstag fire. He could have fled the country, as others had done, but he felt he should stay and fight. He paid with hard labor and torture. The authorities demanded he sign a statement renouncing his principles, but he refused. Prominent people - including Einstein and Mann - campaigned for him to win the peace prize. For one thing, they thought it might save his life. It helped a bit, but Ossietzky died in 1938, from the effects of persecution. He was 48.

卡尔.冯.奥西埃茨基(1889-1938)无疑是诺贝尔奖获得者中最勇敢的一位。他是一名德国记者和和平主义者。甚至在纳粹上台之前,他就已经被逮捕,进过监狱。当纳粹上台以后,他又一次被关押,就在国会纵火案发生的第二天。像其他人一样,他本来可以逃离德国的,但他觉得自己应该留下来战斗。他在狱中遭受了很大的折磨。当局要求他签署一份声明,他拒绝了。很多知名人士——包括爱因斯坦和曼,为了让他获奖而四处奔走。首先,获奖可以救奥西埃茨基一命。的确,获奖起到了一点作用,奥西埃茨基还是在1938年因为迫害而死,年仅48岁。
6.Ralph Bunche (1950)

 6.拉尔夫·邦奇(1950)
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令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客

 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
The 1922 laureate, Nansen, was talented, but the 1950 laureate was no slouch. At Jefferson High in Los Angeles, Bunche (1903?-1971) was both the sports star and the valedictorian. That's pretty unusual. At UCLA, he was again a sports star and the valedictorian. That's almost unheard of. Plus, we're talking about a young black man in the 1910s and '20s. When he earned his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard, he became the first black person in America to earn a Ph.D. in that field. Working as a U.N. envoy, he presided over negotiations between the new state of Israel and the neighbors that had attacked it. For that, he won the peace prize - the first non-white laureate.

1922年的获奖者南森,是一位多才多艺的人,但是1950年的获奖者却平淡无奇。洛杉矶的杰弗逊高中,邦奇是一名运动新星和学生发言代表。这真的相当不寻常。 在加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校,他还是一名运动之星和学生发言代表。这在以前根本就没有听说过。我们谈论的是一个20世纪20年代的年轻的黑人。当他获得哈佛大学的哲学博士学位,成为在这个领域取得如此学位的美国第一位黑人时。他在1948年9月作为联合国安理会阿以冲突调解特使、瑞典福尔克?伯纳达特伯爵在耶路撒冷被犹太恐怖组织暗杀,邦奇接替主持调解工作。经过邦奇不懈的努力,1949年2月至7月以色列先后与埃及、黎巴嫩、约旦和叙利亚签订了停火协议,为巴勒斯坦地区带来了差不多八年的和平。他是第一个获得诺贝尔和平奖的黑人。
7.Albert John Lutuli (1960)

 7.艾伯特·约翰·卢图利(1960)
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令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客

 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
Before Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela, there was Albert John Lutuli (1898?-1967). His name is sometimes spelled Luthuli, but he went without the "h." He was an anti-apartheid leader in South Africa, the president of the African National Congress. He was also a Zulu chief, a committed Christian, and an apostle of nonviolence. A humble man, he inspired awe in many around him. The apartheid government let him out for ten days to go to Oslo to pick up his prize. At the ceremony, Lutuli noted that the South African interior minister had declared him undeserving of the Nobel. "Such is the magic of a peace prize," said Lutuli, "that it has even managed to produce an issue on which I agree with the government of South Africa."

在奥利弗-坦博和尼尔森-曼德拉之前,就有艾伯特-约翰-卢图利(1898?-1967)。他的名字有时也拼做“ Luthuli ”,但是他常常不写“h”。他是南非反种族隔离的领导人物,非洲国民大会主席。他还是一名祖鲁首领,一名虔诚的基督徒,以及非暴力不合作运动的倡导者。他很谦逊,周围的人对他很敬畏。政府允许10天时间让他去奥斯陆(挪威首都)领取诺贝尔和平奖。在颁奖典礼上,卢图利提到南非内政部长宣称他不配诺贝尔奖。“这真是诺贝尔奖带来的奇迹,” 卢图利说,“这点上我完全同意我们南非政府的看法。”
8.Rigoberta Menchú Tum

 8. 里戈韦塔·门楚·图姆
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 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
There was a time when a great many students were assigned a book called I, Rigoberta Menchú. It was the autobiography of a Guatemalan who belonged to a rebel group called the Guerrilla Army of the Poor. Later, it transpired that the book was full of holes - falsities. But it did not lose its canonical status. Menchú (b. 1959) won the peace prize in 1992, the "Columbus year": the 500th anniversary of Columbus's discovery of, or encounter with, the New World. The committee decided to give the prize to the most famous indigene the Americas had to offer. Menchú was luckier in the arena of world prizes than in the arena of national politics. She ran for president of Guatemala in 2007, getting 3 percent of the vote.

有一段时间,很多学生被指定去读一本书——《我是里戈韦塔·门楚 》。这本书是一个由穷人们组成的叛军集团的危地马拉人写的自传。后来,这本书的很多内容被人认为是不真实的叙述。但是这并没让这本书失去她在人们心目中的地位。门楚在1992年获得了诺贝尔和平奖,恰值“ 哥伦布年 ”:哥伦布发现新大陆500周年。委员会决定把诺贝尔奖颁发给最有名的美洲原住民。门楚在世界大奖的舞台上要比在国家政治舞台更幸运。2007年,她参加了总统竞选,却只获得了3%的选票。
9.Yasser Arafat (1994)

9. 亚瑟-阿拉法特(1994)
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令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客

 令人唏嘘不已的诺贝尔和平奖历史 - die rose - die rose的博客
A lot of people know that Arafat won the peace prize, but they don't know, or tend to forget, that he won it in concert with two Israeli statesmen - the prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, and the foreign minister, Shimon Peres. They won for the Oslo Accords, named for the committee's own city, in which the accords were negotiated. One member of the committee, Kare Kristiansen, resigned in protest. He could not stomach even a third of an award to Arafat. The other four committeemen voted for him. In Oslo, Arafat (1929-2004) bowed to local sensibilities by removing his sidearm, a .357 Magnum. Peres, in his Nobel lecture, went out of the way to say that Arafat's share in the prize was "fitting."

很多人都知道阿拉法特赢得了诺贝尔和平奖,但他们不知道,他和两名以色列政治家共同赢得了该奖项—— 时任以色列外长的佩雷斯,巴勒斯坦民族权利自冶政府主席阿拉法特,以及在1994年由于坚持和平政策而遭刺身亡的拉宾同时获得1995年度的诺贝尔和平奖。

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