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神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着  

2011-10-24 00:36:39|  分类: message |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客

这个月初,阿拉斯加巴罗的捕鲸活动开始了。这种捕鲸活动在因纽皮特语的爱斯基摩人中有着悠久的历史。鲸鱼一直是这些人主要的肉食,燃料和其它材料来源。虽然如今的捕鲸活动已不再那么老式,但每年这种捕鲸活动一直持续下来了。

2011年10月16日
With Powerboat and Forklift, a Sacred Whale Hunt Endures

神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着

After a hunt, a whale was quickly carved up and divided into shares.

在一次捕鲸之后,一头鲸很快被切开并被分成各份。
BARROW, Alaska — The ancient whale hunt here is not so ancient anymore.
阿拉斯加的巴罗——这儿远古时代的猎鲸活动不再那么老式了。
“Ah, the traditional loader,” one man mumbled irreverently. “Ah, the traditional forklift.”

“啊,传统的装卸设备,”一个人唐突地咕哝着。“啊,传统的铲车”
That morning, the first of the annual fall hunt, a crew of Inupiat Eskimos cruising the Arctic Ocean in a small powerboat spotted the whale’s spout, speeded to the animal’s side and killed the whale with an exploding harpoon. By lunchtime, children were tossing rocks at the animal’s blowhole while its limp body swayed in the shore break like so much seaweed. Blood seeped through its baleen as a bulldozer dragged all 28 feet of it across the rocky beach. At one point, one man, not Inupiat, posed beside the whale holding a small fishing rod, pretending for a camera that he had caught it on eight-pound line.
那天早晨,每年秋季的第一次猎鲸活动开始了。一帮说因纽皮特语的爱斯基摩人乘坐一条小机动船在北冰洋上巡航,发现了鲸的水柱并急速行驶到鲸的身旁,然后用一根爆炸的鱼叉杀死了鲸。到中饭时为止,孩子们对着鲸的鼻孔乱扔石头,而这头鲸倦怠乏力的躯体摇摆在近岸开花浪里,就像很多海草一样。当一台推土机拖着这头全长28英尺的鲸穿过岩石沙滩时,鲸血渐渐穿过鲸须而渗漏出来。在这一时刻,一个非因纽特人在鲸身旁摆好姿势,拿着一根小钓鱼竿在照相机前装模作样,好像他用八磅的钓鱼线钓到这只鲸的。
Eventually the heavy equipment gets the job done, and the whale is lowered onto the snow — and the shared joy is obvious. Big blades emerge and the carving commences. Steam rises when the innards meet the Arctic cold. Within an hour, nice women are offering strangers boiled muktuk — whale meat. People mingle. “Congratulations,” they tell the family of the crew.

这笨重的设备终于完成了使命,而这头鲸被放到了雪地上——到处都在分享这种快乐。人们拿出了大刀片,之后切肉开始了。当内脏出现在北极的寒冷天气面前时,蒸汽开始不断上升。一个小时不到,慈爱的妇女们就向陌生人分发煮过的食用鲸皮——鲸肉。人们混杂在一起。“祝贺你们,”他们对船员的家人这么说。
A young man bends over the liver and peels off the membrane so he can take it home to make a traditional drum. A row of Eskimo children slide on the slippery skull bone. A biologist reaches into the whale’s eye sockets, making sure someone remembered to cut out its eyeballs so the lenses could be used to determine its age.
一位年轻人把鲸的肝脏弯了过来并把薄膜撕了下来,因而他可以把那薄膜带回家做一个传统的鼓。一排爱斯基摩小孩在滑溜溜的头颅骨上滑行着。而一位生物学家用手伸到了鲸的眼窝处,确信有人记得割除了鲸的眼球,因为那些晶体可以用来确定这头鲸的年龄。
When a second whale is landed that evening, the middle-aged captain whose crew killed it, a descendant of men who have hunted whales here for thousands of years (subtract the outboard motors, the Caterpillar D7H and the Carhartt foul-weather gear), climbs the sea mammal in waterproof boots and bibs, raises his arms to the people who are sending celebratory text messages and shining the headlights of their extended-cab trucks on the scene, and says “Ah ah ha!”
那天傍晚,当第二头鲸被卸下时,这位中年船长的船员杀了这头鲸。他是这儿猎了几千年鲸的人的后裔。(拿走那些舷外(尾挂)发动机,履带式D7H和卡尔哈特汽车有限公司(Carhartt)的恶劣天气传动装置)他使这头海洋哺乳动物慢慢地在防水的靴子和工装裤里上升,向正在发送庆祝短信的人们举起了双臂,并说“啊 啊 哈!”这些人正在现场照亮他们额外租来的大卡车的前头灯。
The crowd repeats this back to him: “Ah ah ha!”

人群向他重复这句话:“啊 啊 哈!”
Again, the muktuk is carved. Again, a biologist cuts out an eyeball. Asked whether this is a good place to pursue his work, Hans Thewissen, a whale expert who travels here regularly from his job at Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, said, “This is the only place.”

食用鲸皮再次被切开了。一位生物学家再一次割除了一个鲸眼球。当鲸鱼专家汉斯?瑟威森被问道,这里是否是一个从事他工作的好地方时,他说,“这是唯一的地方。” 他经常从工作的东北俄亥俄大学医药学院来这儿。
The captains will open their houses over the next few days, distributing muktuk to the community, not so differently from the way their ancestors did. Before Arctic Alaska began being pulled into the developed world in the 19th century, before Pepe’s North of the Border, a Mexican restaurant, opened in Barrow in 1978, before Oscar Mayer Lunchables reached the impulse aisles at the big-box store next to the museum, bowheads provided the central food, energy and spiritual sustenance for Eskimo villages. Families used the whales’ bones to frame sod houses and mark the graves of the dead.

船长们将在接下来的几天里开家庭招待会,给社区分配食用鲸皮,这与他们的老祖宗做的没什么不同。北极阿拉斯加在19世纪开始被拖入发达世界之前,在一家墨西哥餐馆Pepe的 “边境之北”在1978年开业之前,在奥斯卡?梅耶即时食品到达博物馆边上的仓储式商店——心血来潮的商店铺面前,北极露脊鲸是这儿爱斯基摩人村庄里人们的主要食品,能量和精神支柱。各个家庭用鲸的骨头来构筑草屋以及标记死者的坟墓。
The federal government and the International Whaling Commission allow the whale hunt to continue, under tight control, as a subsistence tradition. Bowheads, which number about 11,000, are an endangered species, though the population is increasing. Alaska Eskimos harvest less than 1 percent of them each year.

美国联邦政府和国际猎鲸委员会允许猎鲸活动在严格控制下作为一种维持生活传统可以继续。北极露脊鲸大约还有1万1千头。虽然种群数在增加,但仍是濒于灭绝的物种。阿拉斯加州的爱斯基摩人每年捕获不到1%的鲸。
This year, Barrow’s quota, the largest given to Alaska’s whale-hunting villages, is 22 strikes, including the 9 by Barrow hunters as the animals migrated to summer feeding areas in the Beaufort Sea this spring. Many hunters use more traditional methods in the spring, traveling across sea ice and paddling toward whales in sealskin boats. In the fall, the whales make their way west and south before the winter ice arrives.

今年,考虑到阿拉斯加的猎鲸村庄,巴罗限额最大的数字是22次刺杀,包括当这些动物迁徙到夏季聚食区域,巴罗猎人今春在波弗特海的9次。许多猎人在春天用更传统的方法。他们在海豹皮船里横穿海冰,用桨划向鲸鱼。这些鲸在冬冰到来之前的秋天向西部和南部迁徙。
“Fall whaling is for lazy whalers,” said Eugene Brower, head of the Barrow Whaling Captains Association, ribbing more than criticizing his fellow hunters.

“懒惰的猎鲸者们在秋季猎鲸,”尤金?布罗尔说道。他是巴罗猎鲸船长协会的头。他嘲笑他协会的猎人多于批评。
Experienced whalers say a combination of factors, including that relative ease and ice thinning in spring from climate change, have made the fall hunt more prominent. This year, it started on Oct. 8, the latest in memory.

经验丰富的猎鲸者认为,各个因素包括气候变化导致春季相对容易而且冰比较薄等相结合,使得秋季猎鲸变得更加重要。今年,记忆中最近一次的猎鲸活动开始于10月8日。
Mr. Brower is the grandson of Charles Brower, a white man who arrived in the Arctic on a commercial whaling ship in the 1880s, married an Inupiat woman and stayed. Mr. Brower, the grandson, still uses a heavy brass harpoon gun stamped as having been made in a very different whaling capital, New Bedford, Mass., in 1878.
布罗尔先生是查尔斯?布罗尔的孙子。查尔斯?布罗尔是19世纪80年代乘坐一只商业猎鲸船来到北极的白人。他和一位因纽特人妇女结婚并在这儿安家落户了。这位孙子布罗尔先生还在用一根笨重的铜制捕鲸炮。这根捕鲸炮的说明表明了,它是1878年马萨诸塞州的新贝德福德一个非常不同的捕鲸中心制造的。 
Here in Barrow, the snowy flats by the beach where the whales are butchered (the snow covers an old runway used by the former Naval Arctic Research Laboratory) are splashed with patches of blood and guts until more snow falls. Some blubber ends up in the trash, no longer prized as fuel for heat and light when a drill rig nearby makes natural gas cheap and easy.

巴罗海滩边冰雪覆盖的平原上,许多鲸在这儿被屠宰的(冰雪覆盖住了原海军北极研究实验室使用的一条老的跑道)血花四溅,一堆堆的血和内脏。直到更多的雪下下来才能掩盖这种场景。一些鲸脂不再作为加热和点灯的燃料捕获品,最后成了垃圾。附近一个钻井架使得天然气既便宜又方便。
The whale hunters know what some people think of all of this, and many are wary when news crews show up with cameras. They know what the animal-rights people will say — and insist they will misunderstand.
猎鲸者们知道有些人怎么想所有这些事情,而且当新闻工作人员带着相机出现的时候,许多人小心翼翼的。他们知道动物权益保护者将说什么——而且坚持说他们将会误解。
“We’ll never stop doing this,” Fenton Rexford, a candidate for mayor of the North Slope Borough, the northernmost municipality in the United States, said as he watched the festivities. “No one can stop what our fathers and forefathers have done for thousands of years. But we’re highly adaptable people. We use what tools are available to us to make life easier.”

“我们不会停止这么做,” 当芬坦?里克斯福尔德(Fenton Rexford)观看着庆祝活动时这么说。他是美国最北行政区——北坡区的市长候选人。“没人能够阻止我们的父辈和祖辈已经做了几千年的事情。但我们是适应性很强的人。我们用我们可以用的工具而让生活更容易。”
Mr. Rexford, who learned later that he missed being in a runoff by 18 votes, noted that just down the road, the Barrow High School football team, the Whalers, was dominating a school from Fairbanks and would soon be on its way to the small-school state championship. In 2006, ESPN came when the newly formed team played the first high school football game north of the Arctic Circle.

里克斯福尔德(Rexford)先生后来了解到他在一次决胜选举中少了18票而落败。他指出,就在路边的巴罗高中橄榄球队——猎鲸者队占了一个来自费尔班克斯(美国阿拉斯加中东部城市)的学校的优势,而且不久将参加小州冠军赛。2006年,当新形成的球队在北极圈北部高中橄榄球赛第一次比赛时,娱乐体育节目电视网(ESPN)来到这儿录制播放。
“Our Whalers over there are winning, 28 to 6, and the real whalers have landed a whale,” Mr. Rexford said. “What a coincidence. What a healthy community.” 

“我们那儿的猎鲸者队快要赢了,比分是28比6,而真正的猎鲸者已经抓了一头鲸,” 里克斯福尔德(Rexford)先生说。 “多么巧啊!多么成功而且经营不错的一个社区啊!”

北极秋季捕鲸活动图片:

神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客

1. 阿拉斯加巴罗的捕鲸传统历史非常悠久,但执行这项传统的方法却绝非易事。10月初,一辆铲车将一头鲸的骨架带上岸来。这头北极露脊鲸是今年秋季猎鲸季节抓到的第一头鲸。

神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客
2.那天傍晚迟些时候,第二头鲸被拖上岸。当孩子们观看时,生物学家罗伯特?瑟伊丹摘除这头鲸眼组织来测试。他估计这头鲸可能有20到30年了。
神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客
3.因纽特语爱斯基摩人船长尤金?布罗尔带着19世纪马萨诸塞州新贝德福德制造的猎鲸炮。猎鲸设备被一代一代的传了下来。
神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客
4.艾肯号的成员把秋季猎鲸活动的第一头鲸拖上了岸。今年,巴罗的限制是22刺杀,包括今年春季当这些动物迁徙去了夏季聚食区时,巴罗猎鲸者抓到的9次。
神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客
5. 艾肯号的家庭成员聚集在这头鲸的周围拍照。
神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客
6. 这头鲸的切割马上开始。船长将在接下来的几天里召开家庭招待会,将鲸肉分配给社区,这同他们祖先所做的没什么区别。
神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客
7. 当这头鲸被屠宰的时候,一轮彩虹出现在现场上空。
神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客
8. 抓了第一头鲸的船长妻子玛丽埃塔?艾肯给那些到这儿来庆祝的人准备食用鲸皮。
神圣的猎鲸活动用机动船和铲车持续着 - die rose - die rose的博客
9. 当太阳落山的时候,只有鲸骨头剩下了。
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