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我不可能做到别人要求我做每一件事,我只有足够时间去做我该去做的事情。如果我无法把每件事情都作到尽善尽美,这便意味着我想做的事情已经超过了我该去做。认清了自己的人生坐标,我的生活变得更为简单了,作息安排也更为合理。 魅力由它而生,它是苦难的根源,也是塑造坚强现在的原因。愿意相信别人,能够承担别人的信任,相信别人却是极其艰难的决定。心底的秘密存在于过去,找到那个能接受过去的人,就能有勇气焚毁所有的担心,融化冰封的城堡,让世界大地回春。

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与驯鹿为伍的萨米族人图片集  

2011-11-06 18:49:12|  分类: message |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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与驯鹿为伍的萨米族人图片集 - die rose - die rose的博客

萨米族人与驯鹿在一起的生活图片集。

萨米族人
The People Who Walk with Reindeer

与驯鹿为伍的民族

1

Ella-Li Spik of Jokkmokk, Sweden, is one of only a small percentage of Sami who grow up herding reindeer. She is part of a new generation with plans to attend college. "I want to explore the world," she says, "but I always want reindeer to be part of my life."

瑞典约克莫克地区的埃拉—李?斯拜克是放牧驯鹿长大萨米族人。这些人只有很小的比例。她是新一代中计划上大学的那部分人。“我希望能够探索世界,”她说,“但我总想着驯鹿成为我生活的一部分。”

2

Sami herders follow the migrations of the reindeer as they move across northern Scandinavia and Russia from their winter grazing grounds to cooler areas during the summer months.

夏季期间,当萨米族牧人从冬季牧草地穿越斯堪的纳维亚北部和俄罗斯地区,跟随着驯鹿迁徙的路线到达更凉快的地区。

3

Reindeer can spook suddenly, so Nils Peder kneels calmly in the midst of the herd on which his livelihood depends. He holds a lasso color-coded to indicate the temperature and season in which it works best. As he watches the animals, Nils Peder is yoiking, chanting a throaty, traditional Sami song evoking his wife, Ingrid. The Lutheran pastors who converted the Sami forbade yoiking, calling it devil's music. Nils Peder learned it from his grandparents and has taught it to his children.

驯鹿可能突然受到惊吓,所以尼尔斯?皮德尔在他生计所依赖的鹿群中镇静地跪了下来。他手里握着一根标了色标的套索来表明套索最有效的温度和季节。当尼尔斯?皮德尔观看着这些动物时,他在吟唱一首低沉的传统萨米族人歌曲。这首歌曲唤起了他妻子因格里德的感情。路德教的牧师却改变萨米族人禁止吟唱这种歌曲,称之为罪恶的音乐。尼尔斯?皮德尔从他祖父母那儿学到了这种吟唱方式并已经将其教给了他的孩子们。

4

The herd's 80-mile trek toward the sea proved too hard for this calf. The herder tied the struggling young reindeer to a sled and hitched the sled to his snowmobile.

鹿群朝着海边的80英里旅行证明对这只幼鹿太困难了。牧人把这头奋力挣扎的幼鹿绑在了雪橇上并把雪橇栓在了他的雪地机动车上。

5

The reindeer trudge through deep snow to find food in their winter grazing grounds outside Harr?, Sweden. Lichen is the staple of their winter diet, and they must push aside the snow to reach it. The wetter snow associated with warmer temperatures in recent years causes a frozen crust to form over the plants, which the reindeer can't break through.

瑞典哈拉市外的驯鹿在冬季牧地上步履艰难地穿过深深的雪地而找到它们的食物。地衣是它们冬季食物的主食,而且它们必须把雪推开才能吃到地衣。最近几年,与较高温度相关较湿的雪地导致了在这些植物上面形成一层冷冻外壳,而驯鹿却无法打破这层外壳。

6

Cone-shaped tents called lávut provide temporary shelter for Sami herders while following the reindeer. Nils Peder Gaup, resting here on the tundra, feels most at home in the mountains. "The Sami spirit follows you," he says.

当萨米族牧人追随这些驯鹿时,称作“lávut”的锥形帐篷为他们提供了临时的避难所。在冻原地带上休息的尼尔斯?皮德尔?戈普在群山里最有家的感觉。“萨米族人的精神会跟随着你,”他说。

7

Sven Skaltje makes a meal from some staples of the Sami diet—dried reindeer meat, homemade bread, coffee—in the kitchen of the apartment he shares with five of his siblings in G?llivare, Sweden. They split their time between the town and their village of Harr?, unreachable by roads. Skaltje spends much of the winter on the tundra with his herd. "I feel empty when I am away from the reindeer," he says.

斯文·斯格尔特亚以萨米族人食物的主食做了一顿饭——干驯鹿肉,家制面包,咖啡——在瑞士耶利瓦勒镇他和他的五位兄弟姐妹同住的公寓的厨房里。他们在这座小镇和他们那公路无法到达的哈拉地区的乡村之间分配时间。斯格尔特亚在冻原地带和鹿群一起度过冬天的大部分时间。“当我离开驯鹿的时候,我心里感到空荡荡的,”他说。

8

Sven Skaltje was saddened to find the carcasses of two female reindeer whose antlers had become entangled during a dominance struggle in northern Sweden. He estimates it took three days for them to die of starvation. After separating the bodies, he saw from the ear markings that one belonged to him and the other to his cousin. Skaltje is much admired by the younger Sami in his herding group, but he is unsure whether the skills he teaches them will endure.

斯文·斯格尔特亚发现两头驯鹿尸体的鹿角已经在瑞典北部的一次主要的扭打中缠在了一起。他估计这两头驯鹿需要三天才死于饥饿。把这两头驯鹿的尸体分开后,他看到耳朵内的标志,一头属于他,另一头属于他的表兄弟。虽然斯格尔特亚在他放牧的组织内受到年轻一代萨米族人的很多钦佩,但他自己却无法确定他教给这些年轻人的技巧是否将会长期存在。

9

After finding the carcasses of two female reindeer that starved to death with their antlers locked together, Sven Skaltje removed their antlers. He boiled them clean to save as a keepsake.

发现两头因鹿角缠在一起而死于饥饿的驯鹿尸体之后,斯格尔特亚切除了这些鹿角。他将这些鹿角煮干净之后并把它们留作了纪念品。

10

Frames of lávut are a common sight in Sami yards, where they are used for smoking meat. Sami have long used the tents as portable shelters—their wide bases and forked poles enable them to withstand winds of up to 50 miles an hour on the Arctic tundra. Easy to transport and erect, the frames were originally covered with reindeer skins, but waxed canvas or lightweight woven materials are more common today.

似圆锥形帐篷的结构是萨米族人院子里正常的景观。这些结构被用于熏肉。长期以来,萨米族人一直把这些帐篷用作便携式避难所——宽大的底部和叉状的支杆使它们能够承受住北极冻原上每小时多达50英里的大风。方便运输和架设的结构最初是用驯鹿的毛皮覆盖的,但如今用蜡帆布或轻便的编织材料更常见。
11

Sara Gaup, 14, is dressed for her confirmation. The garb that she and her father, Nils Peder Gaup, wear identifies their hometown as Kautokeino, Norway. The upturned tips of their reindeer-hide boots were designed to hook into skis.

14岁的萨拉·戈普为她的成人仪式穿上了礼服。她和她父亲尼尔斯?皮德尔?戈普穿着他们故乡挪威凯于图凯努相同的服装样式。他们的靴子是驯鹿皮革制成的,而朝上翘的鞋掌被设计来钩住雪橇。
12

A reindeer lies slaughtered on a table in the Gaups' modern kitchen in Kautokeino, Norway. Not a bit of it will go to waste. The family freezes, smokes, or dries the meat, as well as the organs, fat, blood, and even hooves. Some Sami make handicrafts using antlers and bones for tools and toys, tendons for thread, and skins for bags and garments. They spend months preparing hides—scraping, soaking, drying, and stretching the leather by hand. To sell meat commercially, herders transport reindeer to slaughterhouses, which butcher the meat and discard the rest.

在挪威凯于图凯努市戈普家的现代厨房里,一头被屠杀了的驯鹿平放在餐桌上。这头驯鹿一点也不会浪费掉。戈普家会冷冻,熏制或风干鹿肉,还有内脏或大脑、脂肪、鹿血甚或鹿蹄。一些萨米族人用鹿角和鹿骨制造工具和玩具,用鹿腱制造细线,用鹿皮制造袋子和衣服等手工艺品。他们花费几个月的时间来准备驯鹿的皮革——用手刮擦、浸泡、干燥和拉直皮革。为了商业性的销售鹿肉,牧民们将驯鹿运到屠宰鹿肉并扔掉其它部分的驯鹿屠宰场。

13

On a moonlit night, herders bring the reindeer into temporary tarp-enclosed corrals called gárdi to separate the pregnant females from the rest.

在一个月光沐浴下的晚上,牧民们把驯鹿带进称作“gárdi”的临时用柏油帆布四面围起来的围场将怀孕的母驯鹿和其余的驯鹿分开来。

14

Mathis Gaup wades into the herd of pounding reindeer to separate the pregnant cows—the ones that still have antlers—from the rest, briefly grasping one reindeer by her leg to guide her outside the stockade. In 2011 only 50 percent of the females bore calves in the Gaup family's herds in Norway, down from the usual 80 percent. But herders take bad years in stride. "Nature controls the size of the herd," says Mathis's brother, Nils Peder.

马特希斯?戈普奋力地挤进乱哄哄的驯鹿群以便分离开受孕的母鹿——这些母鹿仍然还有鹿角——从其余的鹿群中,只要短时间内抓住鹿腿,然后引导她走出栅栏。2011年,挪威戈普家的鹿群只有50%的母鹿产了幼鹿,低于正常的80%。牧民们对厄运之年泰然自若。“自然界在控制着鹿群的大小,” 马特希斯的兄弟尼尔斯?皮德尔说。
15

Pregnant reindeer cows, which keep their antlers over winter, cast shadows on the tarp framing their temporary pen.

保留着鹿角度过冬天的受孕母鹿在构筑临时鹿圈的柏油帆布上面投下了影子。
16

The extended Gaup family warms themselves with coffee on the long off-road journey to meet the herd for calf marking on the tundra.

戈普大家庭在漫长而越野旅途中用咖啡取暖以便在冻原上为幼鹿做标志而迎接鹿群。

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